WHEEL COVERS (TRACTORS)

Wheel covers are inserted into the wheel of all tires to streamline the airflow around the tires and can be used on all six wheel ends of a tandem axle tractor.

A variety of manufacturers produce aerodynamic wheel covers, and small benefits can be achieved by using them as part of an overall fuel efficiency strategy. Wheel covers are made of a variety of materials including aluminum, polycarbonate, and even cloth.

The primary design challenge has been making it possible to easily remove the wheel covers so that the wheels are accessible, while maintaining strong attachment to the vehicle over the road.

Benefits

May be as much as 1% but likely less in real word operation

Some fleets have historically purchased polished aluminum wheels for appearance reasons. With wheel covers, this extra expense might not be desired.

Challenges

  • Historically, add-on aerodynamic features for tractors incurred a higher initial cost. This is still the case for some of the optional devices

Can limit access to wheel hubs and tire pressure systems, so covers must be easily removable

Tractor Aerodynamics

What Fleets Are Saying

“We continue to update our fleet with more fuel efficient post-2014 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency emission compliant engines, install aerodynamic devices on our tractors, and equip our trailers with trailer blades, which all lead to meaningful improvement in fuel efficiency.” — Knight Transportation

“Appearance and detail of our equipment means a lot to our drivers. Drive wheel fairings don’t just save us money, but our drivers like them too.” — Brad Pinchuk, Hirschbach

“Sleeper tractor aerodynamics have been finely tuned by all OEMs. Eliminating various features can add 10% to a fleet’s fuel expense,” — Chief engineer at a major truck builder.

Decision-Making Tools

The Confidence Matrix has been issued to help fleets make decisions about tractor aerodynamic devices.

Conclusions

  • Fleets should use the standard, optimized aerodynamic packages developed by tractor manufacturers and should not remove aerodynamic options that are included in the base model. Depending on the features removed, fleets will see as much as a 10% decrease in fuel efficiency.
  • Tractor and trailer heights should be matched for as many miles driven as possible as the fuel economy reduction from mismatched heights is in excess of 10%.
  • Fleets operating day cab tractors should pursue greater adoption of tractor aerodynamics than is common today, as many day cabs operate at highway speeds during nearly all of their duty cycle, where aerodynamics can offer as much as 13% gain fuel efficiency. Even day cabs operating in start-stop city driving will see savings from certain aerodynamic technologies.
  • Tractor manufacturers should design and make available aerodynamic features for day cab tractors as the industry migration to shorter hauls will likely result in more day cabs seeing significant highway and interstate miles.
  • Aerodynamics have not been fully developed for all day cab configurations, including natural gas, and the tractor manufacturers should develop and release these components.
  • Alternative fueled vehicles including battery electric and hybrid electric are subjected to the same aerodynamic forces as diesel-powered vehicles. Manufacturers need to keep that in mind as they design these alternative fueled vehicles so they are optimized for aerodynamics. In addition, manufacturers of add-on aerodynamic devices need to begin work on adapting their products so they can be used with alternative-fueled tractor.
  • Future EPA and NHTSA Greenhouse Gas regulations will challenge tractor builders to continue to improve the aerodynamic drag of these vehicles in excess of what has been demonstrated in the Department of Energy SuperTruck I and II programs. OEMs should start planning for this today, as the lead time required to design new models is significant and can be costly.

Manufacturers

  • Aerotech Caps
  • Deflecktor
  • Flow Below
  • Real Wheel Covers